EMS 2022 LLSA Reading List

EMS Provider Safety and Wellness

Vigil NH, Grant AR, Perez O, Blust RN, Chikani V, Vadeboncoeur TF, et al. Death by suicide-the EMS profession compared to the general public. Prehosp Emerg Care May-Jun 2019:23(3):340-5.

  • This analysis of data from the Arizona state death registry found that suicide was the cause of ___________________ of deaths among EMS personnel compared to ___________________ among non-EMS providers.

Watanabe BL, Patterson GS, Kempema JM, Magallanes O, Brown LH. Is use of warning lights and sirens associated with increased risk of ambulance crashes? A contemporary analysis using National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) data. Ann Emerg Med Jul 2019;74(1):101-9.

  • EMS transport while using emergency lights and siren increases the odds of a crash by ___________________ when compared to transport without lights and siren.

Management of Behavioral Emergencies

O'Connor L, Rebesco M, Robinson C, Gross K, Castellana A, O'Connor MJ, et al. Outcomes of prehospital chemical sedation with ketamine versus haloperidol and benzodiazepine or physical restraint only. Prehosp Emerg Care Mar-Apr 2019;23(2):201-9.

  • The subsequent intubation rate for patients given ketamine for agitated behavior was ___________________.

Management of Heat-Related Illness

Belval LN, Casa DJ, Adams WM, Chiampas GT, Holschen JC, Hosokawa Y, et al. Consensus statement-prehospital care of exertional heat stroke. Prehosp Emerg Care May-Jun 2018;22(3):392-7.

  • The gold standard treatment for exertional heat stroke is ___________________.

Patient Safety

Hoyle JD Jr, Ekblad G, Hover T, Woodwyk A, Brandt R, Fales B, et al. Dosing errors made by paramedics during pediatric patient simulations after implementation of a state-wide pediatric drug dosing reference. Prehosp Emerg Care Mar-Apr 2020;24(2):204-13.

  • After implementation of a statewide pediatric dosing reference system, this simulation study found that EMS providers administered an incorrect dose in ___________________ of cases.

Post Cardiac Arrest Care

Lemkes JS, Janssens GN, van der Hoeven NW, Jewbali LSD, Dubois EA, Meuwissen M, et al. Coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med Apr 2019;380(15):1397-1407.

  • Among patients who were resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and did not have ST-elevation MI, ___________________ were found to have an acute unstable lesion or thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery, but there was ___________________ in survival between early versus delayed angiography.

Prehospital Airway Management

Braude D, Steuerwald M, Wray T, Galgon R. Managing the out-of-hospital extraglottic airway device. Ann Emerg Med Sep 2019;74(3):416-22.

  • ___________________ should be used for initial and ongoing assessment and confirmation of ventilation through an extraglottic airway.

Prehospital Cardiac Arrest Management

Grunau B, Kime N, Leroux B, Rea T, Van Belle G, Menegazzi J, et al. Association of intra-arrest transport vs continued on-scene resuscitation with survival to hospital discharge among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA Sept 2020;324(11):1058-67.

  • ___________________ and ___________________ are associated with transporting cardiac arrest patients with CPR in progress rather than providing on-scene resuscitation.

Prehospital Cardiac Care

Patrick C, Ward B, Anderson J, Keene KR, Adams E, Cash RE, et al. Feasibility, effectiveness and safety of prehospital intravenous bolus dose nitroglycerin in patients with acute pulmonary edema. Prehosp Emerg Care Nov-Dec 2020;24(6):844-50.

  • Among patients treated by EMS with IV nitroglycerin for suspected acute hypertensive congestive heart failure, ___________________ were confirmed to have this diagnosis after ED evaluation.

Prehospital Management of Hypoglycemia

Sinclair JE, Austin M, Froats M, Leduc S, Maloney J, Dionne R, et al. Characteristics, prehospital management, and outcomes in patients assessed for hypoglycemia: repeat access to prehospital or emergency care. Prehosp Emerg Care May-Jun 2019;23(3):364-76.

  • This study found that ___________________ of patients whom EMS treated for hypoglycemia and transported to the ED were discharged from the ED.

Prehospital Pain Management

Sobieraj DM, Martinez BK, Miao B, Cicero MX, Kamin RA, Hernandez AV, et al. Comparative effectiveness of analgesics to reduce acute pain in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care Mar-Apr 2020;24(2):163-74.

  • When used for initial analgesia in the prehospital setting, opioids had ___________________ side effects than ketamine but ___________________ than acetaminophen and NSAIDs.

Prehospital Trauma Management

Knapp J, Häske D, Böttiger BW, Limacher A, Stalder O, Schmid A, et al. Influence of prehospital physician presence on survival after severe trauma: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg Oct 2019;87(4):978-89.

  • A metanalysis of studies from multiple countries shows that patients with ___________________ are more likely to survive if a physician is part of their EMS team.

Newgard CD, Lin A, Eckstrom E, Caughey A, Malveau S, Griffiths D, et al. Comorbidities, anticoagulants, and geriatric-specific physiology for the field triage of injured older adults. J Trauma Acute Care Surg May 2019;86(5):829-37.

  • A trauma triage guideline revised for geriatric patients uses a systolic blood pressure limit of ___________________ and Glasgow Coma Score cut of ___________________ to increase sensitivity in identifying serious injury at the expense of a decreased specificity.
  • Implementation of prehospital treatment guidelines for patients with traumatic brain injury was associated with improved survival in the cohort of patients with ___________________  level of injury.